The George Washington University and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration published an update to the BioCompute Object Specification Project, which provides much-needed standards for communicating high-throughput sequencing computations and data analysis, known as BioCompute Objects.
ILUM Health Solutions, a subsidiary of Merck & Co., will team up with the state Health Department and Gaithersburg, Md.-based data analysis company OpGen in a program to detect, track and manage antimicrobial-resistant infections at health care institutions, Gov. Andrew Cuomo announced Friday.
The University of New England is adding a new Data Science program in Biddfeord leading to a bachelor of science degree for students. FILE PHOTO BIDDEFORD ? The University of New England has announced that it is adding a new Data Science program to its offerings. The program, which leads to a bachelor of science degree, will be part of the Department of Mathematical Sciences, located on the university's Biddeford Campus, according to UNE President Dr. James Herbert. "Not only will UNE's Department of Business and its Makerspace laboratory contribute in the development of courses for the data science degree, but our programs in areas such as marine sciences and health sciences offer key opportunities for data science research projects," Herbert said. Herbert said he believes that UNE is uniquely suited to the study of data science, which involves the use of mathematical modeling and computing to analyze data and to design systems for making predictions, information extraction and
Construction on Ring Road will begin in March 2019 and last until June, officials said in August. The planned Health Sciences and Biology Building?where the Olson Memorial Pool and old Schwartz Building once stood?will house AACC?s growing science program and will require Ring Road, which circles around Arnold?s East Campus, to be rerouted. Starting in...
The results of a large, international systematic review show that tuberculosis treatment is successful in children with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The study was used to inform the World Health Organization guidelines on treatment of MDR-TB in children.
Prosthetic limb control is fundamentally constrained by the current amputation procedure. Since the U.S. Civil War, the external prosthesis has benefited from a pronounced level of innovation, but amputation technique has not significantly changed. During a standard amputation, nerves are transected without the reintroduction of proper neural targets, causing painful neuromas and rendering efferent recordings infeasible. Furthermore, the physiological agonist-antagonist muscle relationships are severed, precluding the generation of musculotendinous proprioception, an afferent feedback modality critical for joint stability, trajectory planning, and fine motor control. We establish an agonist-antagonist myoneural interface (AMI), a unique surgical paradigm for amputation. Regenerated free muscle grafts innervated with transected nerves are linked in agonist-antagonist relationships, emulating the dynamic interactions found within an intact limb. Using biomechanical, electrophysiological, and histological evaluations, we demonstrate a viable architecture for bidirectional signaling with transected motor nerves. Upon neural activation, the agonist muscle contracts, generating electromyographic signal. This contraction in the agonist creates a stretch in the mechanically linked antagonist muscle, producing afferent feedback, which is transmitted through its motor nerve. Histological results demonstrate regeneration and the presence of the spindle fibers responsible for afferent signal generation. These results suggest that the AMI will not only produce robust signals for the efferent control of an external prosthesis but also provide an amputee?s central nervous system with critical musculotendinous proprioception, offering the potential for an enhanced prosthetic controllability and sensation.
Bacterial colonies can undergo synchronized oscillations of cell growth, in which individual cells communicate through potassium ion-mediated electrical signals. Liu et al. found that such communication can also occur between adjacent colonies (see the Perspective by Gordon). Furthermore, colonies that would normally oscillate in synchrony adapted to an environment in which the nutrient supply was limited by growing out of phase with one another. Mathematical modeling and further experiments showed that this kept the colonies from having to compete for the limited nutrient and, counterintuitively, allowed the colonies to grow more quickly than they did with a higher nutrient concentration.
Science , this issue p. ; see also p. 
Constriction of the small arteries that regulate regional organ blood flow occurs due to membrane depolarization of arterial myocytes, which stimulates voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels that mediate the influx of Ca2+ ions. Dilation of these blood vessels from the constricted state can occur due to BK channels, which are activated by Ca2+, partially reversing the membrane depolarization of arterial myocytes. Leo et al. found that membrane depolarization triggered a signaling pathway that ensured the activation of BK channels. Ca2+ influx through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels activated kinases that increased the trafficking of the ?1 auxiliary subunit of the BK channel to the plasma membrane, where it bound to the pore-forming subunit to increase its sensitivity to Ca2+. Thus, BK channels are activated in depolarized arterial myocytes not only because of direct stimulation by Ca2+, but also because of the increased plasma membrane abundance of the subunit that determines their sensitivity to Ca2+.
This Podcast features a conversation with Jonathan Jaggar, senior author of a Research Article that appears in the 9 May 2017 issue of Science Signaling , about trafficking of big potassium (BK) channel subunits in arterial myocytes. Depolarization of the arterial myocyte membrane causes a rise in intracellular calcium that stimulates the cell to contract, which leads to vasoconstriction. Membrane depolarization also activates BK channels, which allow potassium to flow out of the cell, thus repolarizing the membrane and promoting vasodilation. Leo et al . found that a critical aspect of this negative feedback mechanism was the trafficking of the regulatory ?1 BK channel subunit to the plasma membrane. Membrane depolarization caused the ?1 subunit to translocate to the plasma membrane, where it associated with the pore-forming ? subunit to increase the calcium sensitivity of the channel. These findings identify trafficking of regulatory subunits as a mode of regulation for multisubunit ion channels.
[Listen to Podcast]
T cells walk a tight rope in fighting infection without harming the body?They respond to foreign antigens in the context of self-MHC without reacting so strongly that they attack self. Conventional T cells achieve this balance through positive and negative selection in the thymus. Verstichel et al . report that agonist-selected T cells in humans undergo a different process. A PD-1 T cell population acquired features of tissue-resident effector cells and an innate functional effector phenotype in response to self-antigen in the thymus. Immature thymocytes were diverted to this agonist selection pathway before conventional selection. This timing suggests that, rather than being by-products of failed negative selection, these cells instead follow a distinct path to survive thymic selection.
Hypertension (high blood pressure) is very common, especially in older adults, and it contributes to a number of other cardiovascular disorders. Although a variety of therapeutic interventions are available for this condition, none of them are specific or long-lasting, and they can all cause side effects, which decrease adherence to treatment. Hilgers et al. discovered that increased expression of thioredoxin, a protein that scavenges free radicals and restores proteins damaged by oxidation, reduced hypertension in mice. Injection of recombinant human thioredoxin also reduced hypertension in mouse models, and its protective effects lasted for weeks, suggesting that it may be possible to adapt this approach for chronic treatment of human patients.
Phagocytes, predatory cells of the immune system, continuously probe their cellular microenvironment on the hunt for invaders. This requires prey recognition followed by the formation of physical contacts sufficiently stable for pickup. Although immune cells must apply physical forces to pick up their microbial prey, little is known about their hunting behavior preceding phagocytosis because of a lack of appropriate technologies. To study phagocyte hunting behavior in which the adhesive bonds by which the prey holds on to surfaces must be broken, we exploited the use of microrobotic probes to mimic bacteria. We simulate different hunting scenarios by confronting single macrophages with prey-mimicking micromagnets using a 5?degree of freedom magnetic tweezers system (5D-MTS). The energy landscape that guided the translational and rotational movement of these microparticles was dynamically adjusted to explore how translational and rotational resistive forces regulate the modes of macrophage attacks. For translational resistive prey, distinct push-pull attacks were observed. For rod-shaped, nonresistive prey, which mimic free-floating pathogens, cells co-aligned their prey with their long axis to facilitate pickup. Increasing the rotational trap stiffness to mimic resistive or surface-bound prey disrupts this realignment process. At stiffness levels on the order of 105 piconewton nanometer radian?1, macrophages failed to realign their prey, inhibiting uptake. Our 5D-MTS was used as a proof-of-concept study to probe the translational and rotational attack modes of phagocytes with high spatial and temporal resolution, although the system can also be used for a variety of other mechanobiology studies at length scales ranging from single cells to organ-on-a-chip devices.